_ 田 田
Strawberry is a perennial herb. It is the world’s recognized “queen” in the fruit. It is favored by cultivators and consumers because of its colorfulness, high nutrition, strong flavor, early results, and good benefits. Strawberries are planted in all parts of my country. Strawberry cultivation began in France in the 14th century, and strawberry cultivation began to be carried out around the world. Strawberry fruits are heart -shaped, have the characteristics of sweetness and sour, delicious, delicious and juicy, have the effects of moisturizing the lungs, strengthening the spleen and stomach, and have good medicinal value. They can improve the immunity of the human body. It also has a certain effect. Use plastic greenhouses to promote and semi -promoted cultivation. The frozen strawberry seedlings that have been formed by flower buds have been blossomed 30 days after planting. If strawberry fruits can be mature around the Spring Festival, they can be sold at a higher price and have good economic value.
1 Analysis of the current status of strawberry cultivation in plastic greenhouses in Chang’an District
The cultivation of Changan Strawberry began in the 1980s. It was mainly concentrated in Huangqiao Village and Loguyuan Village. The open field planting method was adopted. Later, it was changed to open fields and semi -promoted the coexistence of cultivation. The economic benefits of planting strawberries increased. In 2010, the introduction of greenhouses was introduced. It mainly included nearly ten varieties such as Hongyan, Zhang Ji, Tian Charlie, Ningyu, Xingxiang, Suizhu, etc. The planting benefits of farmers have been greatly improved. Yanxin Road, Huanshan Road, Changan Avenue, and Ziwu Avenue areas have become the main producing area of strawberries. As of March 2018, the planting area of strawberry in Chang’an District was 12,000 mu, with an annual output of about 20,000 tons, with a total output value of 800 million yuan. Fresh fruit was fresh fruit. Fresh fruits The period can last from November each year to mid -May of the second year, for half a year. On December 2, 2014, Strawberry in Chang’an District officially obtained the registration certification of the national agricultural product geographical indication.
The cultivation of Changan Strawberry Plastic Sheds has the industrial scale, which can meet the requirements of regional production, and organize cultivation and production of cooperatives and large planting households formed by land transfer. With the support of government departments and agricultural research institutes, the structure of strawberry varieties is optimized, and two types of varieties of Hongyan and Zhang Ji have accounted for about 80%of the planting area in the region. A standardized strawberry production technology has been formed, the professional technology training of farmers is strengthened, and a standardized cultivation management model is adopted to better ensure the quality and output of strawberries.
2 Strawberry growth and development characteristics
2.1 During the formation and conditions of stolan stems
Strawberries are cultivated in high -cold areas in the north. If the strawberry mother plant blooms and results, the plants will have a certain stolin stems. After the fruit picking period, a large amount of stub stems will be generated. Under normal circumstances, the variety of precocious strawberries is relatively early, and late -maturing varieties will be a little later. The period of formation will be affected by the conditions of sunshine and the low -temperature environment. The sunlight of more than 12 hours will cause the plant to cause a large amount of sta -stub. If the ambient temperature is lower than 5 ° C, it will not meet the low temperature accumulation, and the plant will not form or less stolin stems.
2.2 Flower bud differentiation and development
Strawberry varieties, cultivation methods and environmental factors will affect flower bud differentiation. Many strawberry varieties will differentiate flower buds in the environment of 13-27 ° C. The precocious varieties of the 1st season will not be sensitive to low temperature and short sun conditions, but the 2 seasons will be sensitive to the above two conditions. After the splitting of flower buds is completed, it will continue to develop into flower buds and bloom, and it needs to be carried out under high temperature and sunshine duration.
If the temperature becomes lower or the sunshine time is shortened, the strawberry plant will enter the dormant state. The petiole will become shorter, the leaf surface will be reduced, and it will keep parallel to the ground and grow on the ground, showing a short lotus seat state, which will enter the sleep. Many varieties will enter the dormant period below 4 ° C. It needs to be accumulated at low temperature days. It is also necessary to wake up the strawberry plants in a long sunshine environment to wake up in a dormant state. The dormant will be carried out after the flower bud differentiation, and it will be induced by low temperature and short -term photos, while the length of sunshine has a greater impact on the plant.
2.4 result habits
The output of strawberry is directly related to the number of plants, the number of flowers, the fruits, and the fruit size. After the development of the flower buds is completed, it will be opened at the condition that the environmental temperature exceeds 10 ° C. The flowers are open first, the second and third -level flowers are opened, and the secondary flowers will have problems that only bloom. Even if the result will have the phenomenon of deformed fruits or fruits, there is no good economic value. It is necessary to combine the growth of plants to tip, and only the primary and secondary flowers can be kept to ensure the fruiting rate. Strawberry single spending time is 3-4 days, and it needs to be pollinated during this period. Within 15 days after flowering and pollination, the fruit growth is relatively slow, and it will grow rapidly within 10 days. It can increase by 2g a day, and then the growth of the fruit will slow down to stop.
3 The main points of plastic greenhouse strawberry cultivation technology
3.1 Plastic greenhouse construction
First, we must combine the width of the noodles to design the arched shed, set the arched shed span to 3-6m, and use 1-3 lines. If you want to build a large arched shed 6-10m, you should increase the pillars according to the actual situation. When choosing a plastic greenhouse construction location, you should try to choose the area of the back and yang. The soil in the cultivation area should be loose, rich in organic matter, can be irrigated by drainage, and also requires good ventilation conditions. The terrain should be flat and smaller. Plastic greenhouses should be constructed with walls to ensure the scientific and reasonable wall structure, which can make the arch of the arched reach sufficient height and meet the requirements of strawberry cultivation. The soil of the greenhouse is turned on, and the width of the noodles is set to 50cm and the ditch width is 30cm to keep the length of the greenhouse within 20m. In the bamboo pole joint, we can use cloth strips to be bundled reliable to avoid breaking the greenhouse plastic. First cover the shed film on the upper side of the arch, and then apply auxiliary tools such as wooden sticks to set up the actual conditions of the greenhouse, and perform compact treatment of the plastic film left on both sides of the greenhouse. Causes air permeability, which is not conducive to the temperature control of the greenhouse. In the actual construction process of greenhouses, reasonable adjustments need to be made according to the specific conditions of the greenhouse, thereby increasing the application rate of plastic greenhouses.
3.2 Reasonable control of the temperature and light intensity of the greenhouse
Suitable temperature and humidity are beneficial to the healthy growth of strawberries. Strawberries are a kind of cold plant. Under the conditions of high temperature and drought in summer, it is not conducive to plant growth. The temperature of the plastic greenhouse needs to be controlled at 10-20 ° C. The growth and development of the stolons requires not less than 10 ° C, and the sunlight time is more than 12h. During the most prosperous period of strawberries, the temperature requires the temperature to remain at about 23 ° C and 16h. During the strawberry seedlings, the temperature of the greenhouse needs to be controlled at 18-23 ° C. If it is about 5 ° C, it needs to stop growing. In the -10 ° C-8 ° C environment, the plant will be frozen. To cultivate strawberries with plastic greenhouses, the temperature during the seedling period should be ensured that the temperature during the day is about 25 ° C, the temperature at night is 15 ° C, and the soil temperature is most suitable. After entering the flowering period, the temperature of the greenhouse should be controlled at 10-20 ° C, and the soil temperature should be kept at 15 ° C. If the temperature exceeds 35 ° C, the plant will have poor fertilization. When the temperature is lower than 10 ° C, the pollen will be suppressed. The most suitable temperature of the plant germination is 25 ° C. During the mesh division of pollen mother cells, the temperature of the greenhouse is kept 40 ° C within a few hours, which will inhibit the formation of pollen.
Strawberry is a kind of weak light -resistant plant. Under the condition of short sunshine, flower buds will be differentiated. After entering spring, the strawberry plant will bloom and bear fruit with the longer light time. In the environment with low temperature and short sunshine time, the plants will enter the dormant period, and the plants will not grow. After the sunshine changes in spring, it can enter the strong and growing long -term.
3.3 Water and fertilizer management
Strawberries can promote growth in a humid environment. The relative water content of the soil needs to be maintained at about 70%, and the water bud differentiation period needs to reach 60%of the water, and the humidity of the mature period is maintained at 80%. The air humidity is most suitable at about 80%, and the humidity period of the flowering period cannot exceed 90%. Avoid affecting the impact on fertilization, thereby rejuvenating deformity fruits. Strawberry is a shallow root plant. The root system is mainly distributed in the surface soil of 20cm. Neutral and micro acidic soil can promote the healthy growth of the plant. The pH value is most suitable at 5.8-7.0. Fertilizer. After the strawberry plant enters the growth stage, it is necessary to adopt a scientific and reasonable fertilization method to carry out deep rectification to apply bottom fertilizer. It can be used to use rotten farm fertilizer, commodity organic fertilizer, and compound fertilizer. 25cm high -及, and timely topdressing, can avoid premature failure caused by malnutrition of plants. When topdressing, the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and potassium fertilizer need to be controlled to enter the middle and late stages of the growth of the plant. The leaf surface fertilizer can be sprayed according to the situation, thereby increasing the amount of sugar content of strawberry fruit. After a large number of plants, high potassium fertilizers can be used, and they need to be poured in time after fertilization. In order to prevent strawberries from having gray mold, you can pour the strawberry fruit from the stage of blue and white. After the strawberry enters the nine cooked stage, after the picking is completed, the compound fertilizer can be applied while pouring. , Improve the economic income of fruit farmers.
3.4 Bee pollination and artificial pollination
In order to enable the greenhouse strawberry fruits to better grow and develop, the pollination management of strawberry flowers needs to be strengthened, which can further improve the output and quality of strawberry. The strawberries cultivated in the greenhouse will bloom in winter. Due to the influence of the weather, the insects will become less and cannot be naturally pollinated. Strawberry pollen cannot be effectively spread to other plants. It cannot guarantee normal natural pollination. Ensure strawberry output and quality. The pollination of bees can be introduced into the greenhouse environment, and the pollination rate of bees can be used to increase the pollination rate of flowers to avoid malformations in the fruit.
At the same time, artificial pollination is appropriately adopted. A flower requires 1.2mg pollination amount, and the powder will be from 9 am to 5 pm when the loose powder. The best fertilization time is 2-3 days after flowering. Fruit with juicy meat. When pollination, the pollen should be applied to the flower center, or the inflorescence should be removed with fine hair, and then slowly moved. Strawberry flowers will have low -grade flowers and advanced flowers under the greenhouse conditions. Secondary flowers will cause male infertility. Senior secondary flowers will cause female infertility. The second flowers need to be removed. This can reduce the number of deformities. You can also provide the nutrients absorbed by the plant to other fruits to better ensure the quality of strawberries.
3.5 Leaf picking and sparse fruit
When the strawberry plant enters the results period, it is necessary to remove the aging leaves in time, and the stems and leaves of the plants on the ground should be cut off in time. Plants during the flowering period should be cut off with poor growth flowers to avoid the nutrients in the soil, which can better ensure the quality of the fruit.
3.6 Reasonable harvesting work
Mature strawberries should be harvested in time to control the harvesting period. If harvest is too early, it will affect the real taste and quality of strawberries, and it is not conducive to improving production. If picking too late, it is not conducive to transportation and sales. It can be harvested in different periods in the order of top flowers, ears of the first trail, and the second armpit flower ears. The picking time can be 6-10 in the evening or morning. Because strawberry fruits are naturally preserved for only 2-3 days. If you pick it on the day of the day or the next day, you need to understand the maturity of the fruit. There is no leakage. To avoid adverse effects on other fruits due to rotten fruit. Use the nails to open the strawberry handle and pick it down with the fruit handle. The fresh strawberry fruit needs to be packed in grades in combination with quality, color, fruit shape and other factors, and then sells for sale. During the harvest process, it is necessary to avoid being squeezed. The container is highly reasonable, and the bottom needs to be flattened. After the harvest is completed, the pre-cooled treatment is required, the temperature is controlled at 0 ° C, and the humidity is 90%-95%of the environment.
3.7 Do a good job of disease prevention and treatment
The use of elevated nursery in the greenhouse environment will make the probability of pest pest pests smaller. It is necessary to use chunromycin, Daisen and zinc, etc. for sterilization, and spray for 10-15 days. When a anthracnose occurs in strawberries, the diseased plants need to be cleaned up and are treated scientifically and reasonably. Pharmaceuticals such as freshelline, Fumimei and other drugs can be used to prevent and control important areas. Start with physical means, establish a comprehensive prevention and control system, and rotate the film -covered soil. When using chemical drugs, the use of drugs is needed to strictly control the amount of drugs before and after the flowering period, and malformations are avoided to cause intervention in normal pollination. It is necessary to avoid threats to staff and ecological environment.
To cultivate strawberries in the plastic greenhouse environment, you need to start from every link of cultivation to do a good job of management, strictly control the temperature, humidity, and light duration, fertilize and control the soil moisture in scientific combination, remove the rotten leaves in time, and make a sparse fruit. After the picking period, personnel need to be picked in time to do a good job of prevention and treatment of pests and insect pests in plants, and effectively improve the output and quality of strawberry.
Analysis of the main points of strawberry cultivation technology in plastic greenhouse environment