History review (April 14, 2021)

The formation of the 30 -war capitalist world economic system after the topic

1. Bretton Forest Conference -Forms an international monetary financial system centered on the dollar

1. background

(1) Necessary: ​​Absorb the lessons of the protectionism of the economic crisis trade, prevent war from repeating the war, and planning order after the war.

(2) Possibility: The post -war international economic pattern has changed, and Western Europe has been severely damaged. The capitalist world currency system centered on the pound is difficult to maintain; the United States’ strength expands unprecedentedly, in an attempt to establish a capitalist world currency system led by itself.

2. Establishing: The Bretton Forest Conference was established in 1944.

3. content

(1) Established in 1945

International Monetary Fund Organization, International Revitalization Development Bank

, Totesting the Bretton Forest System.

(2) The International Monetary Fund is a professional institution aimed at stabilizing the international financial system.

(3) International Fuxing Development Bank, also known as the World Bank, is dedicated to the post -war European economic revival, and later turned to global development assistance to provide long -term loans and technical assistance for member states.

4. Features: “double hook and one fixed” world currency system.

(1) The dollar is directly linked to gold, and the dollar acts as the equivalent or representative of gold.

(2) The currency of the International Monetary Fund Member State maintains a fixed exchange rate with the US dollar.

2. General Agreement of Customs Trade -Form the International Trade System Centered on the United States

1. reason

(1) The economic crisis has made people recognize the serious harm of trade protectionism, and the necessity of coordination of international trade.

(2) The United States actively advocates the establishment of international trade organizations for economic expansion.

2. Established: In 1947, 23 countries in the United States signed “

Tariffs and Trade General Agreement

3. Objective: To negotiate tariffs through negotiations, eliminate trade barriers, realize trade liberalization, make full use of world resources, and promote economic development.

4. influences

(1) For the United States: The international trade system centered on the United States is formed, which is conducive to the US manipulation of world trade and economic expansion.

(2) For the world: established an international free trade system, created a free trade environment, and promoted the post -war world economic development.

3. The formation of post -war capitalist world economic system

1. Composition: World Bank, International Monetary Fund Organization, and “General Agreement of Customs Trade”.

2. know

(1)

The United States has a special status in the system

It is conducive to the economic expansion of the United States.

(2) The system conforms to the trend of economic globalization, promotes the stability and development of the world economy, and reflects the development of the world economy in the direction of systematic and institutionalization after World War II.

[Debate] The loans provided by the International Monetary Fund are mainly used to stabilize the international exchange rate and ensure the stability of the exchange rates of various countries. It is a “poverty alleviation” development agency.

[Tuo] The General Agreement of Customs Trade is actually a “organization”. It is a multilateral international agreement and organization on tariffs and trade standards. This is why it was later replaced by the WTO.

[United] Measures for maintaining the status of overlords after World War II:

(1) Establish NATO to hegemony with the Soviet Union;

(2) Control Western Europe through the Marshall plan;

(3) Control the United Nations;

(4) Leading post -war capitalist economic system.

Topic thirty -one world economy regional group group and globalization trend

1. The development of the world’s economic regional group today

1. European Union

reason

cultural tradition

Western European countries since the Renaissance have similar cultural traditions

Historical lesson

The continuous conflict and war in modern European countries have aroused Europeans’ desire for reunification

Reality

After World War II, Western European countries generally declined, and the U.S. -Soviet polar pattern formed

(2) Process:

European Community (1967)

European Coal Steel Community (1951) European Economic Community (1957)

European atoms can community (1957)

European Union

In 1992, a member of the European Community officials formally signed the “European Union Treaty”. In 1993, the European Union was established

Euro birth

In 1999, the European Union’s single currency

EUR

come out

(3) Nature: regional organizations with economic and political dual properties.

(4) Significance:

① To promote the common development of the economy of various countries; promote the prosperity and stability of Europe; improve the international status of Europe.

② For the world pattern: the trend of polarization of the world is conducive to the formation of a new pattern of the world’s political and economic pattern.

2.

NAFTA

① The absolute advantage of the United States in the international economy is facing challenges

② In order to deal with challenges from Europe and Japan

Establish

① In 1992, the United States, Canada, and Mo signed the “North American Free Trade Agreement”

② In 1994, the North American Free Trade Zone was formally established

Target

Gradually cancel tariffs and other trade barriers to achieve free circulation of goods, labor, capital, etc.

influences

① Strengthen economic cooperation and exchanges between the Three Kingdoms, and promote the economic growth of the region

② Those who realize developed countries and developing countries

Complementary

, Enhance the strength of the regional group

3. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Organization

(1) Reason: In the 1980s, the world

Economic Regional Group

The influence of development.

(2) Establishment:

① In 1989, it was established in Canberra in the Australian capital.

② In 1991, the Seoul (now translated) meeting passed the Seoul Declaration.

③ In 1991, China officially joined, and Taipei and Hong Kong, China joined in the name of regional economies.

(3) Tempical and goals: Mutual dependence, benefits together, adhere to the open multilateral trading system, and reduce the barriers to trade in the region.

(4) Evaluation:

① Three aspects of trade and investment liberalization, trade and investment facilitation, and economic and technological cooperation have been achieved.

② There is a difference in culture and history between members.

It has a certain impact on the development of its economic group

2. Today’s world economy

Globalization

trend

1. Basic process

(1) Start: The development of new routes.

(2) Development: Two industrial revolutions.

(3) Deepening: After entering the 20th century, especially since the 1990s,

The speed of globalization is greatly accelerated

[Debate] The fundamental reason for European economic integration is the development of productivity, economic development, and economic connection of European countries, not the threat of the “Cold War” of the United States and the Soviet Union.

[Tuo] The EU is the regional group organization with the highest level of cooperation in the world today. The EU cooperation is the most extensive and the highest degree of integration, and the political, economic, and cultural connections between their member states are also closer.

[Note] The main components of the front pattern of the euro banknote are doors and windows, which symbolize the cooperation and frank spirit that the EU respects. The opposite is various bridges, symbolizing the link between Europe and other countries.

[Tuo] The “horizontal form of economic cooperation and competition” in the North American Free Trade Zone reflects the cooperation and competition between the two developed countries of the United States and Canada; Cooperation and competition between Mexico in developing countries.

[Note] The United States: Expand the export market;

Canada: Moving the sunset industry;

Mexico: Attract funds and technology.

[Supplement] Regional economic cooperation is not just to enjoy benefits, but also pays a certain price. Developed countries should be able to profit from the economic regional integrated tide.

[Supplement] The Asia -Pacific Economic Cooperation is based on the basis of “mutual respect, equality, mutual benefit, negotiation, and voluntary voluntary”. All members negotiated on the basis of voluntary and promised in the form of declaration declarations to promote cooperation. This commitment has no obligation and responsibility to perform, because it is not a legislative or instruction hard rule, and is not mandatory to members.

[Debate] Economic globalization 球 global integration

Economic globalization only refers to economic development trends. Global integration also has politics and military content. The two are both connected and different.

[Supplementary] The essence of globalization is the new round of capital of capital in the world. The globalization since the 1990s reflects the colonies of new colonialism, that is, relying on strong capital and high -tech to make economic expansion.

2. Main reason

(1) Scientific and technological progress and productivity development are the fundamental motivation.

(2) New transportation and communication methods are basic technical means.

(3) The end of the pole structure eliminates political barriers.

(4) Most countries have established a market economic system.

(5) The booming development of multinational companies and regional groups has become a promotion

Economic Globalization

Key factor

3. influences

world

It not only accelerates the development and prosperity of the world economy, but also exacerbates the imbalance in interests in global competition.

Developed country

The biggest beneficiary of economic globalization

Developing country

It is both an opportunity and a challenge, in disadvantage and passive position. It should be seek development in active participation

4. Basic understanding

(1) Economic globalization is an inevitable result of social and economic development. The trend cannot be changed. In the long run, it is conducive to the economic development of the world and countries.

(2) The essence of economic globalization is

Developed capitalist countries

A new round of capital expansion globally.

[Note]

The biggest beneficiaries of economic globalization are developed countries. This is because economic globalization is led by developed countries, and it has an absolute advantage in capital, technology, marketing, and management.    

(3) As long as you establish a fair and reasonable new international political and economic order, due to the situation of the situation and the benefit and avoiding harm, the common prosperity of the world can be achieved.

(4) To have global consciousness, many global issues can only be solved by joint negotiations. Globalization and diversification must be unified.

3. The establishment of the World Trade Organization and China to join the World Trade Organization

1. Establishment of the World Trade Organization

The general trade agreement is just a temporary applicable multilateral trade agreement, and there are many disadvantages

purpose

Promote the development of markets in various countries, mediate trade disputes, and achieve global trade liberalization globally

effect

① The standardized and legal world trade system has begun to establish

② Give enough attention to the interests of developing countries and small trading countries

2. China joins the World Trade Organization

(1) Time: In December 2001, China officially joined the World Trade Organization.

(2) Active impact:

① Promoted China’s economic development and further

Improve the socialist market economy system

China has joined the WTO as a developing country. To this day, Western countries still use China’s market economy as an excuse to create trade frictions.

② Promoting the growth of the world economy, which is conducive to establishing a complete world trade system.

(3) Pressure and challenges: Make some domestic products, enterprises and industries face stronger competition, and some industries will be impacted.

(4) Countermeasures: Improve your own competitiveness to adapt to the new international economic situation.

(1)

reason

reason