During the yellow vest movement on February 16, Alain Finkielkraut, Academician of France, was besieged by a group of demonstrators. In the video taken by the reporter, we can hear the insultation of “fast, shit Zianist”, “France!” This is not the lonely example of the recent anti -Semitic incident: the portrait of the Jewish female politician Simona Veil was painted with the word “卐”; The meaning of the Jewish “); two trees planted to commemorate Ilan Halimi (2006, the young Jewish man planted by a group of suburban young people) was sawn; the Jewish grave of a small town in Rhine Province was destroyed. The Minister of the Interior Castner claims that in 2018, the anti -Semitic case (insult, attack, murder, etc.) recorded in the case increased by 74%to 541.
This series of incidents caused public uproar. On February 19, the major parties organized a joint parade in Paris, and nearly 20,000 people participated; on February 20, at the banquet organized by the French Jewish Agency’s representative committee (CRIF), Macron claimed that the international commemorative international commemorative of the Jewish Massacre would The anti -Semitism definition given by the Alliance (IHRA) is incorporated into some references to the police, judicial department, education department, etc. Level: Crime to all Jewish people in Israel’s national behavior and deny the self -determination power of the Jewish people will be regarded as anti -Semitism. At the same time, he does not seek to amend the criminal law to avoid “hindering criticism of Israeli politics.”
In fact, since the new millennium, some Jewish intellectuals represented by Finkir Klaus have continued to warn the rise of “new anti -Izonism”. Sliding and overlapping between meaning. Macron also said to Benyamin Network in 2017 to Benyamin Network: “We will not make any concessions to anti -Skinism because it is a form of reshaping of anti -Semitism.” The above remarks were criticized by some left -wing intellectuals. In their opinion, confusion of anti -Semitism and anti -tin security is a vertical jelly card for Israel’s increasingly extreme political policy.
Israeli Prime Minister Bennemuminahahu has recently aroused the anger of the international left because of claiming that Israel is the “Jewish nation-country”
In order to sort out the intricate relationship between anti -Semitism and anti -sinism, this article will be divided into two parts. The first part will trace back to the history of anti -Semitism in France. Continuously reshape; in the second part, we will pay attention to the “new anti -Sechism” after the new millennium. We must emphasize that the new anti -Sechism is naturally based on the facts, but it is also based on the facts, but it is also the intellectuals of Israel in the media and intellectuals. The product constructed in the right to speak in the domain. And, although the anti -Semitic discourse is always motivated by the Middle East issue, it will eventually turn into an organic component of France’s own social and cultural conflict.
Evolution of French anti -Semitism
Historian Shulamit Volkov put forward a “cultural code” when studying German Jewish at the end of the 19th century. She believes that anti -Semitism belongs to the secondary topic in public discourse at that time. Most of the time, it is a more magnificent set of ideas or codes given by value or value orientation. Based on her theory, we can see that anti -Semitism has experienced a significance conversion in France before World War II.
After the French Revolution, France became the earliest modern country to liberate Jews. However, as Arium said, modern anti -Semitism was born when Jewish and all other ethnic groups were becoming increasingly equal. At this time, the leader of the anti -Semitism was undoubtedly the right -wing camp. First of all, racism provides it for it: the rise of new sciences such as human race and linguistics, and the opposition between the Jayan/Flash has been continuously spread. Antisémitisme (Antisémitisme “is generally translated as” anti -Seminism “). Secondly, through the establishment of a political organization (the earliest representative in France, the reporter Drummont [Edouard Drumont] and the “Anti -Jewie National Alliance” he established), anti -Semitism has become a political ideology.
The peak of right -wing anti -Semitism at the beginning of the 20th century was the famous Dre Fhafers incident: whether a Jewish officer named Dre Sutra was rebelled in the country, France was split into two factions and controversial for more than ten years. as long as. Anti -Draofers are mostly right wings. In their mouths, anti -Semitism is often connected to the discourse system such as supporting the highest interests of the country and national maintenance. Behind is the “closed nationalism” called scholar Michel Winock. (Based on identity anxiety and historical pessimism, it is opposed to the “open nationalism” of the French Revolution).
It is worth mentioning that anti -Semitism is not uncommon in the early French socialist (Pulu Dong, Brownki, etc.), but unlike the right -wing, they are out of capital and anti -religious positions: Jews It is regarded as a crime of capitalism, or a conservative who believes in religion. However, when the anti -Semitism became a sign of the right -wing ideology, the left camp was cut with this during the Dre Sand.
Beginning in the 1930s, right -wing anti -Skilism has been raging again, and the Nazi occupation and the Vichy government have been well known since then. After World War II, the anti -Semitism was suppressed for a long time, but in the 1960s and 1970s, in the extremely left, the code of the third world -thing -wing -wing ideology -the third worldist, anti -colonialism, and anti -imperialism was activated. This is closely related to the conflict between Zionism and Pakistani.
As a response to the Drevor incident and Pogroms in the same period, a Jewish journalist, Theodor Herzl of the Austro -Hungarian Empire, proposed that Zionism (or “Jewish Rehabilitation “) believes that Jews must gather to survive in a promised place. After that, the Zionists chose the land now called Israel. Before World War II, Zionism was well known in France; after World War II, the atmosphere completely changed. In 1948, Israel was established and the first Middle East war broke out. French society almost supported the Jewish side. At that time, people did not know that Israel borrowed internal cleaning by war, and 800,000 Barstinians were expelled.
After the golden period of the 1950s, the Fifth Republic was established and the Algerian War was over, and Da Goghle began to ease the relationship with Arab countries. Subsequently, 1967 was a key year. “Modern” magazine hosted by Sat published a well -known Israeli special issue. Maxime Robinson wrote that the establishment of Israel is an integral part of Europe and the United States expansion and colonial movements. The discussion of Israel’s colonial issues started from now on; two weeks later, Israel launched a six -day war, frustrating the Arab country, taking the opportunity to expand territorial territories, and the French government criticized the war of Israel. A few months later, Dai Gaulle said in a speech that Jews “elite, confidence, and good control” caused huge controversy and re -activated the “Jewish issue”.
The criticism of Israel with the left wing and the extreme left is always anti -colonialism, anti -imperialism (especially connected to Qiu Mei emotions) as a framework. Added the total offensive launched by the US Empire. ” Part of this anti -tinism also moves to extremes and overlaps with anti -Semitism. According to the research of scholar Pierre André Taguieff, they often imagine Israel’s Zianist fantasies into a “Sionisme Mondial”, that is, a Jewish who believes that all over the world is united to conspire and rule for rule. The world’s secular myths, a large number of references from them, from the absence of Jewish conspiracy theory of Jewish conspiracy in the early 20th century (represented by the “Minutes of the Elderly Zion”).
In the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, a half -flag mourned the hostages of Israeli athletes and was killed
However, at this time, anti -tinism had a little impact on the public. The Palestinian Liberation Organization’s terrorist attack in the 1970s (especially the tragedy attacked by Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics in 1972), which also caused many polar left factions that originally supported it. Essence This situation has changed in the 1980s. In 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon, Arafat was besieged Beyrouth, and was rescued by French President Mitterrand. In 1987, the first Palestinian uprising (Intifada) broke out. Arab civilian stones used stones to fight the Jewish army, causing widespread sympathy around the world. The atrocities of Israel, coupled with Arafat’s diplomatic offensive, made Israel’s image in mainstream public opinion, from the victims of World War II and the heroic resistance to the invaders.
Anti -Zionism is increasingly mainstream, and the extreme anti -Semitic discourse has gradually penetrated into public discourse space. A small part of the extreme left -wing has developed a new anti -Semitic idea since the 1970s: denying the “Négationisme” of the Holocaust. Its representative Robert Faurrisson believes that the massacre is a conspiracy created by Israel to gain sympathy and dominate the world. Frear pine attracted a lot of anarchist. Even after his defendant went to court, he also received Jimsky’s support for his freedom of speech. Many negativeists then turned to the right right camp.
On the right right, Jean-Marie Le Pen, the leader of the National Front (FN), has also been known for expressing hatred for Jews in various twists and turns. In 1985, he accused several Jewish journalists as “the shame of this industry”, and in 1987, it was also called “a small detail in the history of World War II.” It should be said that after World War II, the collective memory of the Vehic government entered a period of depression. The government adopted a soothing and amnesty policy after the war from the attitude of unwillingness to split the people; The Victorian government and the Jewish massacre issues, this ambiguous atmosphere provides opportunities for anti -Semitic words to enter public space again. However, anti -Skillers also caused a rebound. Historians have launched detailed arguments and also promoted and participated in the government’s late trial of World War II. In 1995, President Hillary finally acknowledged that the French government was responsible for the arrest of the Paris Winter Book of Paris during World War II arrests and dispatched Jewish bikes. Overall, anti -Semitism did not flourish before 2000.
The above is a review of French anti -Semitism in the 20th century. There are three points worth reminding: First of all, the left and right -wing anti -Semitism is a rough division and cannot exhaust the diversity of anti -Izonianism. The representative of the previous anti -Semitism disappeared. On the contrary, at any moment of commonality, anti -Semitism was in a mixed symbiotic state, and the types of post -occurrences usually absorbed resources and nutrients in previous anti -Semitism. Left -wing anti -Seda is not an orphans of the French France. For example, in recent years, the anti -Semitic disputes based on the British Labor Party based on anti -capitalist conspiracy theory, the American Somali Muslim member Omar, accusing Jewish manipulating American politics, etc. Examples of different development of the country.
New Millennium: The rise of new anti -dimensions?
With the outbreak of the second Palestinian uprising and the 911 incident and the Iraq war, the French anti -Semitic incident soared in the new millennium. The peak of its peak in 2000 and 2002. The National Human Rights Consulting Committee (CNCDH) survey showed that from 1995 to 1999, Anti -Semitic cases have not exceeded 100, but they have soared to 743 in 2000 and 932 in 2002. Fen Kilklaya exaggeratedly called 2002 as “Crystal Year”, corresponding to the “Crystal Night” of the Third Empire. Sociologist Michel Wieviorka divided anti-Semitic behavior into “anti-Semitic serious cases” -2000-2004, dozens of Jewish churches were arson, more than a dozen schools and Jewish communities were attacked —— With the “overall atmosphere of the anti -Semitic”, the hatred emitted through words, graffiti, intimidation, etc., and to some extent in all fields of society in the tolerance of hatred of hatred. In addition to blaming these anti -Semitic incidents on the international form, Wilvirka also mentioned the further decline of the Massacre memories, especially a “victim competition”, and the Jews were accused of “the status of the victims in the history of monopoly.”
After that, the anti -Semitic incident showed a downward trend during the ups and downs (until 2017), but many serious cases reported by the media have occurred, such as several Jews (such as Ilan Halimi mentioned above). A Jewish school’s attack, the incident of a Jewish store was attacked by terrorists during the 2015 terrorist attack of Paris, and so on. At the same time, in large and small parades, we can occasionally hear the slogan of “Jewish death”. The yellow vest movement was not avoided. This proves the continuous existence of the “anti -Semitic general atmosphere”.
France holds a national rally against anti -Skilism
Especially after the economic crisis in 2008, France gradually fell into a political and institutional crisis, and the anti -Semitic remarks linked to the hatred of the elite and the system were so easy to make the head. If the yellow vest movement is taken as an example, although it is by no means an anti -Semitic movement, its core demand has nothing to do with racial issues, but the high mixing and decentralization of the yellow vest movement has caused it to easily become hatred for hatred Speaking and conspiracy theory of fermentation space. For example, the proactive members of the parade reject the legitimacy of the country and regard the government as the spokesperson for the rich, and it is easy to see the French Jewish country linked to the cultural prejudice of Jewish and money. President of the Jewish (and Macron worked at Ross Chard).
The perpetrators of these anti -Semitic incidents were either the right rightists such as Skinhead or the young suburban North Africa immigrants. Therefore, many intellectuals led by Takyev and Finkirklaw claimed that a “new anti -Uekurism” (this word should be from the United States) was born. The further overlap of Judory and anti -sinism, this overlap is in the “Islamic extremism” of anti -Semitic discourse. They accused the Muslim group that they were deeply influenced by the propaganda of the Arab countries and reflected a kind of “Antisionisme RéDempteur”. It will become better; they then accuse the left and the extreme left, thinking that the latter creates an atmosphere of “Islamic left-wingism”, thereby tolerant of hatred of Jewish hatred.
In their discussion of the relationship between anti -Semitism and anti -sinism, it is easy for us to find a defect: the boundary between “serious criticism of Israeli politics” and “extreme anti -tinism” is very vague. In Takev’s definition, Israel describes Israel as “racism”, “colonialism”, “racial isolation countries” similar to South Africa, etc., all are regarded as Israel’s extreme anti -tinism, that is, anti -Semitic speech, that is, anti -Semitic speech Essence However, from the source, Zionism is a kind of separationism: Hitzel does not believe that Jews can coexist with other ethnic groups. Although there are also humanitarian Zianists such as Martin Buber, after the founding of Israel, its policies are completely expelled and isolated for the Palestinians. Later right -wing tinism was compiled. Under the governance of Tamana in 2018, the Jewish national national bill passed by the parliament is an extreme expression of this separationism. In terms of international law, of course, Israel is a party that illegally invades land. In addition, why not criticize Israel’s colonial campaign for the inequality of the Arab nation in China? You know, Israel’s “new historians” have long studied Israel’s colonies and the expedition to Palestinians. This definition is completely a shield to prevent all criticism of Israeli politics. He also regards “completely denying the foundation of Israel” as one of the manifestations of anti -Semitic remarks. However, on the one hand, Jewish scholars such as Shlomo Sand pointed out that the “return homeland” as the foundation of Israel is a fictional myth. Is it completely denying the foundation of Israel? On the other hand, denying the current Israeli does not mean that the Jewish country should not exist, but should completely change the long -term separation of Zianism and seek a new model of coexistence of all ethnic groups.
On October 22, 2018 local time, Gaza, the Palestinian demonstrators waved their national flags and burned tires in the beach, demonstrating protest protests against the Basin of the Israeli military.
The fact is that the intellectuals who unconditionally support Israel usually use anti -Semitism tools to attack intellectuals that are inconsistent with their political opinions. For example, sociologist Edgar Morin (magic is that he is a Jew) because of his descendants of “Israel’s Jewish as a victim of the isolated system, but in isolated Palestine”, Middle East expert Boniface Anti -anti -Semitism, while legalizing Israel’s oppression of Palestine, was attacked by a group of organic intellectuals of Israeli, and even the defendant went to court. Paradoxically, these people with anti -Semitism have fallen into the trap they dug: they are also equal to all Jews with the anti -Semitism they opposed.
When browsing Takayev’s work, we found that he kept complaining that the Arab world’s demonization of Israel was not mentioned, but he kept in the thinking pattern of Israel’s political defects, and continued to fall into the thinking mode of Hunington’s “conflict of civilization”. The “conflict of civilization” is even more obvious at Finkir Klaus. Starting from his masterpiece “La Défaite de La Pensée”, he is in the rejection of cultural diversity and the fear of the decline of France’s own cultural value. German romanticism represented by Herd is the culprit of the relativeism of “culture” into “my culture”. But recently, he blame all this on the new scapegoat -the Muslim group. He has essentially the Muslim culture and believes that he is incompatible with France. In the 2013 “L’Idité Malheureuse”, he wrote: “When an Internet cafe is called bled.com (BLED is Arabic” country “), when meat shops and fast food restaurants are made up After halal food, residents seemed to experience a panic out of exile; when they saw the increase in the number of Islamic people, they wondered where they lived. ” I don’t know that this is very different from the European society “Verdujung” in the 19th century Wagner. In 2005, he said that the French football team “Black Black and Black” was “laughing in Europe” and even caused a stir. Moreover, the process of de -colonization in France not only brought a large number of Muslim immigrants in North Africa, but also allowed more than 120,000 Jews in Alfalia to enter France. They were mostly pious. The weakening of the original strong assimilation policy in France also makes Jewish immigrants easier to community than before, and has more Jewish consciousness. Why don’t Finkirklaw complains with them? As many critics say, Finkir Klaus to maintain the Jewish country is the imagination of maintaining a single nation -state in nostalgia and refusing to a mixed society. When he said “anti -Semitism”, he said “the annihilation of the nation -state, the abolition of the border, the mixed race and culture, and the obsession with the loss of identity.” We may be traced back to Plato’s preference for “single established forms” and disgusting mixed politics.
Alan Finkirklaw participated in the parade in Paris
So, does this Arabic anti -Semitism really exist? For this, Wilvirka made detailed sociological research on the suburbs where Muslim immigrants lived, and finally gave a negative answer. Muslim immigrants attack Jews, and their motivation is often not anti -Semitism, at least not “anti -Semitism built at the ideological level.” When they commit crimes, their motivation is usually the impact of insufficient education, alcohol, etc., not the impact of Ema or extreme ideology. It should be said that this is related to the “désocialisation” caused by their isolated suburbs of traffic, rather than their complexion, beliefs, beliefs and races. Of course, young immigrants in the suburbs have a stereotype of the Jews. Because of their poverty and isolation, the Jews will be regarded as the nation in imagination, and they will be equated with money and power. For example, at the Ilan Halimi incident mentioned at the beginning of this article, the murderer’s motivation to choose to abduct and extort a Jewish youth is that he believes that every Jews are rich and enemy. These are all related to the conspiracy theory on the Internet. A comedian who is very popular with young people named Dieudonné, and a politician named Alain SORAL, played an important role in the spread of conspiracy theories. In order to avoid the review, the two used anti -Skinism to replace anti -Semitism, causing the significance of the two to slide more intensely. However, this does not mean that most of the young Muslim immigrants are fainted by anti -Semitic emotions. On the contrary, many people have a clear understanding of this. Supporting Palestine does not mean that they are hate Israel. Moreover, when the government tries to improve their social conditions, or they think that the government attaches importance to their own cultural foundation, they will stay away from anti -Semitic remarks.
The resurrection of anti -Semitism is undoubtedly a fact, but we also see that “new anti -Sevanicism” is also a product of a group of intellectuals built by pro -Israeli intellectuals. Takyev and Fen Keella and others hold a lot of culture and symbolic capital. In the intellectual field, they have written many related works; in various media (broadcast, paper media, TV, etc.), They often emphasize the threats of the Jewish group today and complain about the media and the government’s neglect of this (this is often not true, and the number of hate Muslim incidents is high). In addition, although the positions of the two of them are complicated, they can now be roughly classified as right wings (Takyev is known as the new conservative, and Finkir Klaus has been classified as “new reactionist”, but he I do n’t recognize this title), and their attack on anti -Semitism often points to the political and cultural contradictions in France: race disputes with left and right disputes. In particular, Takyev is not a Jewish, and many anti -tidalists (such as Tony Jite in the UK) are Jewish, which shows that in some cases, Zionism has become a certain value Observatory component: If anti -tinism has become a code of some left -wing ideology, then tinism seems to have become a sign of some right -wing ideology.