Consolidation of Hulu Kiln in the Ming Dynasty in Jingdezhen: Zeng Xianhe has been swept for more than 400 years, and has burned 230 million yuan in sky -high blue and white cans

Millennium porcelain capital, magic ancient kiln.

On June 12, 2021, my country’s fifth “Cultural and Natural Heritage Day”. “The people’s non -heritage, the people shared by the people”, this is the slogan of the ancient kiln folklore expo in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province.

“Ceramic cultural heritage is the wisdom crystallization of the Chinese people and contributing to world civilization.” On the morning of the 12th, Zhou Ronglin, a head of the National Cultural Expo Researcher and the Consultant Consultant Regiment of Porcelain Kiln in Jingdezhen. Say. At 11:08, under the leadership of Hu Jiawang, the inheritor of the traditional porcelain kiln workshop in Jingdezhen, the Hulu Kiln was ignited and burned.

Upstream news (report micro -signal: shangyounew) reporter saw at the scene that the torch that was taken by Hu Jiawang was thrown into the kiln in turn. It is understood that the event was initiated by the operating subject of the ancient kiln folklore area of ​​Jingdezhen, Jingdezhen Ancient Kiln Folk Folk Tourism Co., Ltd., and hundreds of tourists from many places across the country observed the re -ignition ceremony of Hulu Kiln.

The gourd kiln can be recovered successfully and has to mention Zhou Ronglin. He was a lecturer in the Chinese Department of a university. After being transferred to the Wenbo system in 1988, he has long been the director of the Jingdezhen Ceramics History Museum and the director of the ancient kiln porcelain factory.

Since Zhou Ronglin retired to the second line, he began to set up a community organization, Jingdezhen Ceramics Cultural Heritage Research and Protection Center, and specialized in investigating Jingdezhen’s traditional porcelain artist to apply for intangible cultural heritage list. The recovery and inheritance of Jingdezhen ceramic culture is Zhou Ronglin’s wish for many years.

On June 12, Hu Jiawang, the inheritor of the traditional porcelain kiln workshop of Jingdezhen, took the lead in re -burning the gourd kiln as a ignition guest. Photography/Upstream journalist Xiao Peng

Visitors witness the ancient kiln recovered burning

“Look at the Forbidden City in the north, visit the ancient kiln in the south.”

At about 10 am on June 12, the upstream journalist walked into the Hulu Kiln in the ancient kiln folk customs area of ​​Jingdezhen City, and found that many parents at the scene led their children to wait for ignition and burning.

Zhou Ronglin introduced that Song Yingxing, a scientist of the Ming Dynasty, explained in the book “Tiantong Kaiwan” that “seventy -two hands can be made into a device.” It takes 72 processes to burn porcelain. This skill is our cultural heritage.

In the encyclopedia of “Tiantong Kaiwan”, which is known as the ancient scientific milestone of China, Song Yingxing recorded the ceramic technical details of Jingdezhen in the Ming Dynasty, which specifically described the shape of the gourd kiln and an illustrated illustration, showing the gourd in Jingdezhen. The style of the kiln.

“According to the statistics of experts, in the Ming Dynasty to the middle of the Qing Dynasty, more than 300 million porcelain fired by Jingdezhen, as well as porcelain used by royal aristocrats made by Royal Kiln and a large number of folk porcelain. It was made. “At the re -burning ceremony of the Hulu Kiln, Zhou Ronglin said that these are the results created by the working people.

“I hope they can feel this kind of porcelain culture at close range and feel the spirit of the ancient craftsmen’s excellence.” Mr. Liu learned that the gourd kiln re -burning activity, and on the evening of the 11th, he took the son of elementary school from Nanchang to watch the primary school. Feel the repetition ceremony.

“Very, very honored, participating in this event on the day of cultural and natural heritage. As an ordinary tourist, he was selected as a ignition guest when he came.” Huang Peng, a Northeast guy, introduced in an interview with reporters at the repetition ceremony. Famous photography enthusiasts also love things with particularly historical significance for ten minutes. He believes that being able to participate in such activities is “extraordinary.”

Mr. Yin, who is in his 50s, is also a ignition guest. Mr. Yin said that from the perspective of the crafts itself, the ceramics here made him deeply shocked. “After looking at the products on the assembly line, the production process has a general impression on Jingdezhen ceramics. The extensive and profound. In the future, we will take this as an opportunity to pay more attention to Chinese ceramics. “

According to the site of the staff, Hulu Kiln will be burned for 24 hours and then flames, and the kiln will be opened on the date. After the kiln is opened, the fired finished products will be sold outside the cultural and creative product area of ​​the Expo District.

Zhou Ronglin, head of the National Cultural Expo researcher and the head of porcelain kiln recovery experts in Jingdezhen. Photography/Upstream journalist Xiao Peng

Shengji Hulu Kiln

In 2005, at the Christder Auction in London, England, a large blue and white can of Chinese Yuan and white cans named “Guiguzi went down the mountain” appeared.

This big can depicts the situation of the military wizard ghost Guzi goes down the mountain to rescue the apprentice Sun Yan. The characters are vivid and the glaze is elegant, reflecting the superb porcelain craftsmanship at that time. In the end, this large blue and white pot was sold for 230 million yuan, setting the highest record of single -piece crafts auction. Based on the price of gold at the time, it was worth 1.6 tons of gold.

The origin of this blue and white porcelain can is in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi. The furnace of its furnace is the famous gourd kiln in the history of Chinese ceramics.

According to the data, Hulu Kiln is a porcelain -made porcelain industry in Jingdezhen, a porcelain capital, and has used a kind of firewood porcelain kiln used throughout the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. It has a history of more than 400 years. The gourd kiln is divided into two elliptical kiln rooms, the front room is high, the back room is short, and the front is wide and narrow.

According to experts, Hulu Kiln is a model in the history of the ancient kiln in China, especially in the Ming Dynasty.

On June 12, Hulu Kiln resumed scene. Picture Source/Ancient Kiln Folk Folk Expo Area

So how does the gourd kiln born and how are it declined?

Zhou Ronglin introduced that during the Song Dynasty, the kiln of porcelain in Jingdezhen was called a dragon kiln. This kiln was usually tilted according to hillside or soil piles. For dragon kiln. As the royal family of the Song Dynasty moved south, the ceramic craftsman of the northern China brought the mature bun kiln to Jiangnan. The steamed bun kiln was the mainstream kiln in the north. Ding kiln is a steamed bun kiln; at the time, porcelain -made in southern China, which was generally used in dragon kiln, and its firing temperature was between 1100 degrees Celsius and 1,200 degrees Celsius.

A large number of northern artisans poured into Jingdezhen, which promoted the integration and development of China’s north -south porcelain technology. As a result, a new type of kiln with a bun kiln and dragon kiln -Hulu kiln appeared. Hulu kiln has the characteristics of dragon kiln and steamed bun kiln. It can not only furnish different types of porcelain at the same time, but also suitable for the firing of new porcelain varieties.

According to historical records, during the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty, Hulu Kiln has become increasingly unable to adapt to people’s demand for the quality and color of Jingdezhen porcelain. As a result, a kind of Pingyan kiln was born. This flat flame kiln is like half buckled duck eggs. It is more scientific for thermal energy for burning firewood, which is suitable for burn of multi -breed porcelain at the same time, so it is called Zhenyao. The advent of Zhen kiln pushed Jingdezhen porcelain to the final climax.

Gourd kiln recovery scene. Picture Source/Ancient Kiln Folk Folk Expo Area

Return the gourd kiln as much as possible

Zhou Ronglin said that during the Ming Dynasty, Jingdezhen had become a porcelain -making center in the country. The existence of Hulu Kiln must have its scientific truth. It must have its firing skills, including technical strengths. As a millennium historical porcelain capital, Jingdezhen should have a live museum, not just expressed or relying on the silent kiln site.

Under this thinking, experts in Jingdezhen believe that the rebuilding of re -burning gourd kiln is of great significance to the ceramic culture that shows the millennium of Jingdezhen for thousands of years.

On January 14, 2010, relevant units in Jingdezhen held a “Symposium on Experts of Hulu Kiln Following the Hulu Kiln in the Ming Dynasty” in the ancient kiln folk customs. On March 21 of the same year, 16 experts went to the site of the ancient porcelain kiln of Hu Tian, ​​the site of the Royal Kiln Factory, and the Ming Dynasty kiln site of the porcelain mountain in Liyang Township.

On this basis, experts from the Jingdezhen Kiln Society began to draw drawings. On April 30, 2010, experts in Jingdezhen kiln furnaces demonstrated the kiln drawing drawings. On July 9, 2010, the construction ceremony of the Hulu Kiln Fuki Clasting Kiln in the Ming Dynasty in Jingdezhen, which is widely concerned at home and abroad, was held in the ancient kiln folklore expo area. After nearly February construction, in late September 2010, the Hulu Kiln Culber Kiln Project was successfully completed.

Zhou Ronglin introduced that the fixed gourd kiln created by the ancient kiln folklore expo is the type of Hulu kiln during the Hongwu period of the Ming Dynasty. There are three main basis for the history and scientific basis for the creation of kiln: one is the relic of the Ming Dynasty Hulu Kiln site in Jingdezhen; the other is the illustration and text of the Ming Dynasty Hulu Kiln in the Ming Dynasty Song Yingxing’s “Heavenly Gong Kai”; Traditional crazy kiln skills. The kiln brick and craydr mud used in the cracked kiln are also traditional materials. The use of traditional techniques is specially produced, which fully reflects the principles and concepts of “inheriting the cultural heritage of porcelain capital with scientific spirit”.

Zhou Ronglin introduced that the recovery of Hulu kiln in the Ming Dynasty adheres to the concept of “promoting the culture of ancient town, using scientific inheritance of porcelain inheritance”, attaches importance to scientific research, and pays first -class work.

On October 23, 2010, the Hulu kiln in the ancient kiln folklore expo was successfully recovered for the first time. Since then, the re -built gourd kiln and 10 other ancient kiln have been ignited and re -burned from time to time for tourists to visit and experience.

Continuously burning the kiln for more than 400 years “like a mysterious power”

According to Zhou Ronglin’s research, Jingdezhen Hulu Kiln has been used in the people’s kiln in the Yuan Dynasty. The Ming Dynasty was its full heyday. According to the writing era of “Tiantong Kaiwan” and “South Kiln Note”, the gourd kiln In the early years of Qianlong, it was still used. In the eighth year of the Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1743 AD), the Governor Tang Yingfeng compiled the “Treatment Tu Tu”, which said that he did not mention the gourd kiln, and said: “The kiln system, the long circle is covered. Deep. “This is the type of small egg -shaped kiln. From the middle and late period of the Yuan Dynasty, in the early years of Qianlong in the Qing Dynasty, the use of Hulu kiln was more than 400 years.

Zhou Ronglin believes that the birth and sustainable development of Hulu kiln in Jingdezhen shows the wisdom and innovation spirit of Jingdezhen porcelain workers, and shows the brilliant scientific and technological achievements of porcelain kiln.

Zhou Ronglin introduced that there are two more authoritative discussions on the birth, development and development of the Ming Dynasty gourd kiln in Jingdezhen and its kiln structure and firing technology.

First, in 1985, Li Guozhen and Guo Yanyi proposed in the “Basis of Chinese Famous Porcelain Crafts” that (porcelain) production process, kiln structure and firing technology are the key technologies that affect the greatest influence. The development process of Jingdezhen Kiln is likely to form a gourd -shaped kiln in the late Yuan and early Ming Dynasty on the basis of the dragon kiln, and then gradually form a small egg -shaped kiln. The egg -shaped kiln is changed to a large -scale egg -shaped kiln that has continued to adopt.

Second, the 4th issue of “Cultural Relics World” in 2004 published Liu Xinyuan, Quan Kui Mountain, and Fan Changsheng’s “Discovering the Ming and Qing Royal Kiln in Jingde Town”. Those who develop and improve have absorbed some of the advantages of the steamed bun kiln. It is easier to grasp the heating, cooling speed and firing atmosphere than ordinary dragon kiln, which is suitable for burning porcelain with high potassium oxide in the glaze. Essence This kind of gourd -shaped kiln has been used in the people’s kiln in the Yuan Dynasty in Jingdezhen, and it is the first discovery in the Royal Kiln site. This is of great significance for studying the firing technology of the Early Royal Kiln in Jingdezhen and its relationship with the folk kiln.

“The above discussion contains two important contents. One is that the gourd kiln is created on the basis of the dragon kiln and steamed bun kiln, combined with the advantages of the two. The second is the characteristics and strengths of the structure and firing technology of the gourd kiln. “Zhou Ronglin said.

Zhou Ronglin said that in the structure and development of the gourd -shaped kiln, academic circles also have doubts: the two round kiln rooms in the gourd kiln have a waist in the middle of the connection, which actually increases the difficulty of the craftsmanship and the full kiln, and in the middle For folding, the effect of the steamed bun kiln is not achieved.

Zhou Ronglin said that in fact, the folding back later disappeared, and a small egg -shaped kiln appeared. So why did the duration of the gourd kiln from the gourd kiln to the egg kiln from the gourd kiln to the egg -shaped kiln for more than 400 years? There seems to be a mysterious power in it. “The conclusion after we pushed: One of the important reasons for the long -term continuation of gourd -shaped kiln is the profound influence of Chinese gourd culture.”

Upstream journalist Xiao Peng

On June 12, Hulu Kiln resumed scene. Picture Source/Ancient Kiln Folk Folk Expo Area

On June 12, Hulu Kiln resumed scene. Picture Source/Ancient Kiln Folk Folk Expo Area