“Mud Scrap World” -the “Cunman Zhang” of Tianjin

Shao Wenjing

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“Mudie Zhang” was originally a person who gave it to Tianjin folk clay sculpture artist Zhang Mingshan (1826-1906)

The title. At the age of 18, Zhang Mingshan had been famous for Beijing and Tianjin, and later created the “Juguzhai” clay sculpture workshop. Zhang Mingshan’s descendants inherited Zhang Mingshan’s career, incorporated the aesthetic and technical innovation of the times, and spread the title of “Mudie Zhang” for generations. Today, when people mention the “Mudie Zhang”, they are no longer Zhang Mingshan, but the famous old name of Tianjin, and even the representative of the northern clay sculpture style.

Ceramics are ancient folk art in China. It uses mud as the raw material, or squeeze or flip the mold, and formed the mud. In Chinese myths and legends, the son -in -law made the soil to make a human beings. There are already traces of clay sculpture in the Neolithic ruins. The funeral of clay sculptures or animals in the tomb of the ancestors of the Han Dynasty. The clay sculpture Buddha statue in the temple of the Wei, Jin, Sui and Tang dynasties marks the development of clay sculpture art to a peak. After the Song Dynasty, not only the clay sculpture of religious themes continued to prosper, but the folk clay sculpture toys also developed.

Most of the formation of Chinese folk clay sculptures emerged during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In areas where economical are relatively developed, farmers take materials during the farm time, make some mud -made “play”, and sell them at the New Year and Temple Fair. Some are toys for children, and some can be used as customs supplies for sacrifices or town houses. After the Qing Dynasty, with the further development of commercial trade and temple fair culture, the population flow frequently, and the citizen economy and civil culture were more prosperous. Many people in the production of clay sculptures are based on family and specialize in clay sculptures. For example, in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, Dawu Village, Futuyang Town, Chaozhou, the clay sculpture practitioners accounted for 40 % of the total population. Wuxi Huishan also has the saying “every family is so good, and the household will be lottery.” These clay sculptures are basically produced in batches in the form of industrialization to provide local and surrounding areas.

Those who sell mud, choose from Qinghuan Dong Yan’s “Taiping Happy Map”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Most of the classic clay shapes in various places are small animals or hiwasters. Such as Junxian Mudu, most of them are small animals, with small holes at the tail, and “coo” when blowing. Gao Mi Niejiazhuang’s “mud called tiger” was originally a “pot flower”, which is the fireworks ordered in the first month. After the fireworks are put, the mud pier of the heating medicine can be used for decoration. Another example is Feng Xiang’s sitting tiger, festive, and in the local culture, there is the meaning of exorcism and evil spirits. The “big Afu” of Wuxi Huishan is a fat doll with the “sand child” in folk stories, and it is also auspicious decoration that locals love. This kind of best -selling classic clay sculpture products have simple shapes, mostly use the molding method of modeling, and then artificially color, colorful and exaggerated. Fast production, large demand, and low price. The Mudiers are also very popular with the people. When the large households are celebrating and festive or celebrated the New Year, the drama mud people are often used as worship or decoration to add the atmosphere of the New Year. This kind of subject matter is mostly made by hand, the workmanship is more fine, and the skill of clay sculpture artists is more. Many clay sculptures are characterized by this.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Fengxiang clay sculpture “big sitting tiger”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Huishan Mud “Dafu”

The fame of “Mudie Zhang” will inevitably be based on the local folk culture of Tianjin and the clay sculpture industry. In Tianjin, there was also a clay sculpture industry. Tianjin Wei is located at the lower tip of the Jiuhe River. Since the opening of the Sui Dynasty, the water and land dock has been built one after another. It has become an important military town and food center in the Yuan Dynasty. The prosperity of the transportation not only brought food from the south, but also brought Mazu culture. The Mazu worshiped in Tianjin Tianhou Palace is not only a sea god, but also to bless the descendants of the locals. The custom of the Tianjin people begging for a son is to go to Tianhou Palace a mud doll. Gradually, the clay sculpture industry related to the mud doll has also developed.

“Mudie Zhang” was originally the title of Zhang Mingshan, a folk clay sculpture master. Zhang Mingshan (1826-1906), named Changlin, traveled with the word, and at the age of 18, he was famous for Beijing and Tianjin. Zhang Mingshan’s descendants inherited Zhang Mingshan’s career, and incorporated the aesthetic and technical innovation of the times, and spread the title of “Mudie Zhang” for generations. Today, when people mention the “Mudie Zhang”, they are no longer Zhang Mingshan, but the famous old name of Tianjin, and even the representative of the northern clay sculpture style.

“Mudie Zhang” Zhang Mingshan

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“Big V” Zhang Mingshan in the clay sculpture industry

Different from the formation of other clay sculptures in China, the setting of the mudman Zhang Caiquan style is closely related to the personal experience of the founder Zhang Mingshan.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

It is said that Zhang Mingshan’s father Zhang Wanquan is a scholar. Zhang Mingshan moved to Tianjin from Shaoxing, Zhejiang when he was young. Zhang Wanquan made a living in Tianjin to sell some small clay sculptures. In order to help the family, Zhang Mingshan learned some clay sculpture skills with his father. At the age of 13, he left his private school and began to concentrate on making clay sculptures. At the beginning, Zhang Mingshan also made more popular products, but he was good at observing the study, and quickly combined his hobbies with specialties with clay sculpture production, creating a vulgar and elegant style.

At that time, Tianjin often had temple fairs. When Zhang Mingshan was young, he also loved to catch a temple fair and watched the outside scene. His early historical knowledge was learned from the story of opera. He has long been familiar with the character, body and storyline of the characters on the stage. At the age of 18, Zhang Mingshan was the “Yellow Crane Tower” in the name of Yu Sangsheng. Later, Zhang Mingshan was a statue of Beijing opera star Tan Xinpei, Yang Xiaolou, Wang Guifen, Cheng Changgeng, Tian Guifeng and other statues. In the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China, watching the drama was still the main way for Volkswagen Entertainment. The popular fame is like the current traffic stars, some rely on real kung fu, and some rely on power. Whenever Hongjiao has a group of hardcore fans. If they like an actor, they will not only chase his or her performances, but also collect reports, photos and other items related to actors to reward, advertise, and ask for dinner. Zhang Mingshan’s exquisite clay sculpture technology not only won the recognition of the fame, but also suffered the benefits of the “fan economy”. Since then, the stories of celebrities and the drama have become a classic category of mudie Zhang Cailang. In July 1943, in the “Drama Cultural Relics Exhibition” initiated by Yuan Lingdeng, Zhou Xinfang, Mei Lanfang and others in Shanghai, they also displayed the “Strange Artist ‘Mudie Zhang” hand -made Yu Sansheng Tan Xinpei Mud “as the exhibits.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Zhang Mingshan Plast “Yu Sansheng Pattial Pseudo”

Zhang Mingshan “Tan Xinpei Points Statue”

Mr. Tan Xinpei pretended to be a photo

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Some tea sheds will be built when the Tianjin is in a temple fair for people to rest while watching the show. The local gentry and businessmen borrowed antiques in the tea sheds of the temple fair to show their collection of art. Zhang Mingshan took advantage of this opportunity to appreciate many famous arts and calligraphy. Long -term learning observation has improved Zhang Mingshan’s artistic accomplishment. Later, he learned painting and calligraphy, studying the quaint patterns and lace in stone carvings and inscriptions. According to the recall of Yan Fan Sun, a educator in Tianjin in the late Qing Dynasty, Zhang Mingshan “can paint huge landscapes, work and fast”, he has helped Tianjin famous craftsmen “bag inlaid Li” to complete the Lian Jingshou screen. In this way, the view of the peaks and mountains immediately stands up and complements each other, and then it is a masterpiece. “On the wall of the backyard of the second door of Zongguzhai, there was a life star of about 2 meters high, which was made by Zhang Mingshan. Today, there are some Zhang Mingshan’s white painting drafts hidden in the Jin Art Museum, like its draft for clay sculpture. These can be confirmed that Zhang Mingshan is also good at painting.

Zhang Mingshan incorporated the aesthetic and creative techniques of traditional Chinese painting into folk crafts, and created a clay sculpture style of elegant and vulgar appreciation. Mudie Zhang Caizhu is not limited to children’s toys. There are few animal shapes, almost all of them, and more in line with the tastes of citizens of the city. Its production process never needs to be turned over, and each piece is manually shaped. The most important tool for pinching the clayman of the mud man in the past is a “crushing”. The crusher is a shelter -like thin piece, which is made of bamboo, wood or other hard materials. This small tool is like the weapon of the soldiers. It is an extension of hand function. Many artists will polish the pressure of the hand by themselves. The lines are written with the outline of the collaboration, and the trend is smooth. Mudie Zhang Caiquan pays attention to “five -point plastic, five -point color”, follows the coloring principle of “with the color” in the Chinese painting, pays attention to the harmony of color and objects, and the unity of color tones. Compared with other folk clay sculptures, the style and style of the clayman Zhang are more elegant, and the book is rolled. For example, the “fine work” of the Huishan clay people – “pinching the drama”, which is fame is slightly earlier than the “mud man Zhang”, and is a fine work in the clay sculpture. “Hand -pinching the drama” rooted in folk life. It has a strong rustic atmosphere and handmade taste. It is bright, simple and cute. And the mudman Zhang is more good at designing the dynamic image of the characters, pursuing truth and vividness. The color is elegant and delicate. Usually a group of characters show the storytelling story. Two or three roles care each other, and the most exciting bridge in the play is about to come out.

Zhang Mingshan “Mrs. Sun Test Sword”

Zhang Yuting plastic “Three Mother Children”

Huishan’s hand pinch the drama “Yangmen Girl General”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

The elegant temperament and characteristics of the mudman Zhang Cailang not only made citizens feel novel and interesting, but also was sought after by the scholars and doctors. Tianjin is close to Beijing, and north -south literati and officials enter Beijing to pass through Tianjin. Especially in the late Qing Dynasty, the civilization of the city compartment was developed. Many cultural celebrities and wealthy businessmen lived here. The clayman of this belonging to the craftsman Zhang became a well -known legendary figure. Therefore, there are also Li Hongzhang’s stories of the mud man Zhang, and the clayman Zhang Jian sells Hai Zhangwu, which shows the vitality of folk craftsman Deyi Shuangxin.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“3D printing” in the manual era

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Zhang Mingshan’s works are highly realistic. At that time and even later, he said that he had a “pinch”. Legend has it that Zhang Mingshan watching the drama only as the model on the stage, “look at the appearance, take the characteristics, and in the unknowingly, the sleeves are secretly clamored. “Tianjin Zhiluo” records: “Zhang Mingshan is good at pinching plastic, the capable pill mud in the sleeves, squeezing the person and laughing at the person, and then pinching it, forcing Xiao Qi, so it is known as the” Mudie Zhang “.” This non -mudman’s unique skills are traditional folk crafts. In the Ming Dynasty, a group of “Su pinch” artists gathered in the Huqiu of Suzhou, and squeezed the image in the sleeve tube with the laughter, and immediately became a three -five -inch high statue. This approach is exactly the same as Zhang Mingshan’s “unique”. During the period of Qingkang, the Tiger Hill Mud was very prosperous, and tourists would always be curious to try. The 67th time of “Dream of Red Mansions” wrote that Xue Yan brought two boxes of things from Suzhou to his mother and Xue Baodi. Among them, there were Xue Xianxiangs who were pinched in Huqiu mud, which was no different from Xue Yan. However, the Huqiu Mud people gradually became extinct in the late Qing Dynasty, and Zhang Mingshan’s descendants did not engage in “pinching image” again. Bao Tianxiao’s twenty -fourth time in the social novel “Rain over the sky”, borrowing Zhu Airen’s mouth, he said the original committee of “pinching like” the rise and fall. She said: “The Chinese people’s squeezing statue is available in ancient times. As far as my grandfather said: Suzhou Tiger Hill had a pinch in the past. He grabbed a mud and looked at your face. Pinch. The pinch is very similar. This is really good, but later gradually lost. Later, someone in Tianjin could be a statue. A famous one was called the mud man Zhang ‘, but it was not as good as the former Suzhou. Now There are photos carved, and the casting has a model. In fact, it is not surprising. It was true that it was true, and it was not scientific. There was no false borrowing at all, but unfortunately it was lost now. ” The way. With the popularization of photographic technology, these “non -scientific” tricks have also lost the market.

Suzhou clay “Young Women Feeding Baby”

According to legend, Professor Zhang Mingshan Professor Haipai painter Ren Bonian’s “pinching image” skills. Ren Bonian was a rare painter who was a sculpture after the Song Dynasty. He played Zisha in Shanghai, made tea sets and smoke, and left a clay sculpture of his father Ren Songyun. According to his son Ren Yan: “This ancestor of the prince’s father, Ying Yungong, was obtained by the squeezing statue. Sitting on the side of the cage sleeves, it seemed that the father of Ren Bonian was a folk portrait painter, and he was painted by his painting mentoring teacher. Ren Bonian could paint the person he had seen in his childhood and laid a solid foundation for character painting. According to Ren Bonian’s life experience, his pinch is likely to be learned from the folk clay sculpture artists such as Suzhou Shantang and Tiger Hill. Although Ren Bonian was not open in Tianjin, he enjoyed a reputation in Tianjin. During the Guangxu period, there were many businessmen in Tianjin and Shanghai Maritime. At that time, Ren Bonian’s paintings had become reliable investment in the eyes of businessmen. So his works often sell from Shanghai to Tianjin. At that time, the work of the clayman Zhang was also sold in Shanghai. “Declaration” has published an advertisement from the New May to June 1886 to the early June of Baoshan Pavilion to Tianjin Celast. According to reports, Zhang Mingshan went south to Nanjing, Shanghai and other places after the age of 60, and gave Ren Bonian’s “Wujiapo” clay sculpture as a souvenir. Another story is widely circulated. It is said that Zhang Mingshan was called into the palace in his old palace in his later years, but he was not greedy for power and longing for freedom, so he fled to Shanghai and returned to Tianjin for several years at Ren Boyian’s family. This may be the legendary story of the people compiled by the people. Whether the two are closely interacting and have no direct evidence. Many of the two art masters of the north and south in the trajectory of life and creation have left people a lot of imagination.

Ren Bonian Zisha Mud Plastic Ren Songyun Small Portrait

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Ren Bo Nian’s “Ren Yunyun” (partial), the Palace Museum Collection

What mysteries are “pinching like”, it is unknown today. However, today, Zhang Mingshan’s clay sculpture “Jiang Men Shen” (11 cm high) and “Civilian statue” (6.5 cm high), small size, not colorful, are quite in line with the characteristics of “cuffs”. These two small figures are refined in shape, and they can be proper. Especially Jiang Men Shen, with a fleshy face, frowning with both eyebrows, meticulous facial expressions. The body lines are simple, with both hands on their backs, and big abdomen. A few pens shown the lingering of the bully.

Zhang Mingshan “Jiangmen Shen”, Tianjin Museum Collection

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Although these two statues are vivid, they may not have the prototype in reality. In this view, Zhang Mingshan created a few colorful plastic works based on acquaintances, and it is not exaggerated to know the “image” and “true” of Zhang Mingshan clay sculpture. For example, Zhang Mingshan’s neighbor Peng Treasurer, Tianjin Shi Shen Rinpoche, Yan Zhen’s father and son, known as “Huahu Liu”, Liu Guohua, etc., not only the character’s appearance, but also the characteristics of different occupations and identities. Seeing Zhenrong is also convincing. Mr. Xu Beihong heard that the mudman Zhang Shiyou was wonderful, but before he saw the mud man’s handwriting, he still skepticized. In 1931, Xu Beihong was deeply convinced after seeing Zhang Mingshan’s sitting statue of Yan Rinpo in Yanfu, saying that “the whole structure, if the photo of thirty years ago.”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Zhang Mingshan “Peng Treasurer”

Zhang Mingshan plastic “Yan Rinpo Sit Statue”

Zhang Mingshan “Liu Guohua statue”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

The sound of the waves of “Mudie Zhang”

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

While inheriting Zhang Mingshan’s clay art skills, Zhang Yuting pushed the clay sculpture art innovation and pushed the clay sculpture art to another peak. Zhang Yuting (1863-1954), named Zhaorong, is the five sons of Zhang Mingshan. He and six sons Zhang Huatang (Ming Rong) are both representative of the second generation of “Mudie Zhang”. Zhang Yuting has studied art from the age of 13, but has not been awarded his father’s pro -teaching. As Qi Baishi said, “Those who learn me, like me died,” Zhang Yuting also created his own style and caught the title of “Mudie Zhang”.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“Mudie Zhang” second -generation heir conversation Zhang Yuting

The Tianjin Museum has Zhang Yuting’s work “Mei Lanfang’s Forming”. On the 14th of the first month of 1916, Mei Lanfang premiered at the first red building drama “Daiyu Burning Flower” at the Peiping Auspicious Theater. Different from the “Funeral Flower” in the Kunqu era, the new costume drama “Daiyu Burning Flower” has made great innovations in clothing, hairstyle, makeup, and singing and dance. As soon as Dai Yu played by Mei Lanfang’s on the stage, she gave people a refreshing feeling. Daiyu combs the “Pin” shape of the costume hairpin, wears a large blue placket short jacket, and the lower white embroidered long skirt. In the first paragraph, Bai Nian, Zijuan took the hoe and took off his clothes for Daiyu. Then, Daiyu was folded by Guanyan, sweeping flowers, and funeral flowers, incorporating Mei’s original “sickle dance”. Zhang Yuting’s “Daiyu Burial Flower” focused on this classic scene. Both the character, clothing, and body posture were still very accurate, and the pulse inherited his father’s artistic style.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Mei Lanfang’s “Daiyu Burial Flower” scene

Zhang Yuting “Mei Lanfang “

Zhang Yuting was diligent in his life. He stopped creating until the decline of his eyes and decline. There are more than 20,000 works left by Zhang Yuting, including a large number of costume ladies, which are popular. However, the most exciting image he has shaped is a group of small people living at the bottom of society. If Zhang Mingshan used the fame on the stage as a model in his early years, the Yuting was sketching to the people of the city. His works include “Black Sugar”, “Yawn Monk”, “Ear Monk”, which reflect the daily market, as well as “Mogo”, “Kinsers” and “Fisheries”, which reflect the working people, and are full of fireworks on earth. Zhang Yuting’s work seized the expression and movement of the character for a moment, such as the briefing of the candy people, and the moment when the blue tendons rose, the more itchy the ears and the more, the more the micro -expressions wanted to exit. Essence However, once these actions are gaze, they seem exaggerated and agile, as if the viewers can feel the same.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Zhang Yuting “Fisheries”

Zhang Huatang plastic “Gua Gua”

Xu Beihong compared Zhang Yuting’s muddy works with the art of Western realist masters, and believed that his skills have passed. He said: “These two cakes are the masterpieces of realism. The essence of its observation is enough to do it with the beauty of the world’s largest plasticist in the world today. Dalou Dalou has a variety of manuscripts, hidden in Petit Palais. The expression is also inferior. Gou can expand its volume and cast it with copper. Constantin Meunier competed for one day. “Zhang Yuting, who was even more emotional to Xu Beihong, used ordinary people and labor life as a creative object. At that time, the craftsman who was engaged in the clay sculpture was not the mainstream. The theme of art is also authentic. After inheriting the golden signboard of the “Mudie Zhang”, Zhang Yuting did not take advantage of the power, but chose to use civilian views to create the beauty of life and the beauty of the people. This choice has also opened a long -term road for the “Mudie Zhang” in terms of technical inheritance and style.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

Zhang Yuting “Blowing Sugar”

Zhang Yuting “Selling Cake Selling”

Zhang Mingshan traveled around in his later years, and gave all the affairs of Gu Zhai to Zhang Yuting. Under the host of Zhang Yuting, Zhan Guzhai opened the business model of different previous workshops.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

First, he cultivated a clay sculpture production team. His sons Zhang Jingfu and Zhang Jingzhang, and their grandson Zhang Ming and Zhang Ye were made of clay sculpture in Qianguzhai, ensuring the inheritance of Zhang’s craftsmanship. In the production process, a collective division of labor collaboration has been adopted to expand production efficiency.

Secondly, he entrusted his work to the “Tong Sheng Number” of Xiaoyi Street and opened the joint venture model. Tong Sheng’s owner Zhao Yueting is a friend of Zhang Yuting and Zhang Huatang. He not only operates mud, but also sells the willow youth paintings. At first, the work of the mudman Zhang was sold in the store and sold it well. Later, Zhao Yueting purchased a large number of mud men Zhang Caisu, and over time, it became a specialty store of the “Mudie Zhang”. Tongsheng pays the goods from Zhan Guzhai according to the sales of the store. At that time, the mud people of “Mu Gu” and “Fulu Sanxing” were sold well, and Zhan Guzhai cooperated with the store. The size, quantity and time of picking were agreed to produce these three mud men. The original innovation of Pulkzhai was also introduced to high -end customers by Tongsheng.

Zhang Yuting “Magu Xian Shou”

Third, participating in international competitions won a greater reputation. As early as Zhang Mingshan, the clayman Zhang Caisu had been concerned about Huaxi. According to reports, when Zhang Mingshan and Jinmen painter Liu Xiaoyu went to Shanghai, many works would be sold for each time. “After arriving in Shanghai, the West came to visit more, and the portal was worn. The mud artisan abandoned by Chinese art was worshiped by the Westerners and wanted to hire foreign countries. The capital purchase. “The emperor’s club, also known as the” Holy House of Heaven “, is a large scale in Tianjin and gathered in various performances. The clay Zhang’s emperor’s clay sculpture has more than 300 characters with different forms, as well as the palace bridge umbrella fans, etc., which are extremely delicate and view. “Jinmen Miscellaneous Ji” also records that “the Western people used to buy it with heavy gold and set up in the museum for people to watch.” In 1915, the 16 works of the clayman Zhang participated in the Panama World Expo and won the “Honorary Award”. During the Republic of China, Tianjin was a northern business and financial center, and Chinese and foreign tourists were weaving. With the endorsement of international awards, the sales and promotion of the clayman Zhang is also more convincing, and it has almost become a must -buy product for tourists to Tianjin. When Mr. Xu Beihong went to buy the clayman with the same promotion, “the name of the American tournament, how to get honor such goods, how foreigners like to be rewarded, all come to Tianjin, all buyers. I. Cakes 2, Selling Gua Two, Fat Monk, I am happy to return to the south. “It can be seen that Xu Beihong listened to the sales of the store and purchased the conventional” package “of foreign tourists.

In 1915, the mudman Zhang Shiwu participated in the Panama World Expo won the Honorary Award

Zhang Yuting plastic “Hou Hou” Portrait “

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

After the outbreak of the War of Resistance Against Japan in 1937, the development of the clayman Zhang turned into a decline. The business of the same promotion was withered, and Zhang Jingfu died. Zhang Ying, Zhang Ming, and Zhang Yeben should inherit the ancestral industry, and they had to switch to the factory to work in their livelihood. Zhang Jingzhang insisted on making the clayman. On the eve of Tianjin’s liberation in 1949, Zhang Jingzhang also called a handmade mud man on the street, barely.

After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the staff of the Tianjin Military Management Association quickly found Zhang Jingzhang and invited him to participate in the Tianjin Art Working Team. In 1950, Xu Beihong invited Zhang Jingzhang to Beijing to engage in teaching, research and creation at the Central Academy of Fine Arts, the Central Academy of Arts and Crafts, and the Beijing Institute of Arts and Crafts. Zhang Yuting was hired as a librarian in Tianjin Cultural and History Museum. Under the care of the government, the old artists had nothing to worry about in their later years. In 1958, the “Tianjin Caimo Studio” was established and belongs to the Tianjin Cultural Bureau. Zhang Jingzhang and Zhang Ming are responsible for daily work. Members have comrades and comrades of Ceramics and Crafts Factory in the museum. In the new social environment, the clayman Zhang Caisu also has a new theme. For example, Zhang Jingzhang’s ethnic minorities series clay sculpture greatly broke through the scope of the creative theme of the predecessors. The students recruited by the studio are facing the whole society, and the craftsman’s craftsmanship is inherited and carried forward by more young people who love clay sculptures. In 1962, after visiting the mud man Zhang Cailang Art Exhibition, Guo Moruo wrote the poem “Use the mud to make the first son -in -law, the Mingshan clay cake, and the only one yesterday, and now the world of the peaches and the world.” It is the deed of the clay man Zhang Chuanren’s inheritance of clay art.

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“Mudie Zhang” third -generation heir conveyor Zhang Jingzheng

Zhang Jingzheng “Choose Flower Cloth”

“Mudie Zhang” third -generation descendant Zhang Ming (right) and his two Tibetan apprentices

Ceramist Yang Zhizhong “Granules Return to Warehouse”, 1978

“抟泥塑人间”——天津“泥人张”的俗世传奇

“Mudie Zhang” has been named since it has been named so far, and has been passed down for nearly 200 years. Today, Zhang Yu, the sixth generation of “Mudie Zhang”, guards the old brand of “Mudie Zhang”. In charge of the “Mudie Zhang Shijia Painting Old Workshop” and “Mudie Zhang Art Museum”. However, he once bluntly stated in a TV show that “‘Mudie Zhang’ has ended.” He said that his father and grandpa also believed that the skills were followed by others. Constantly innovation and change.

Innovation is actually not a new idea of ​​contemporary “mud man Zhang”. Zhang Mingshan incorporated the elegant culture and the city compartment culture into the folk crafts, and broke away from the traditional Chinese clay sculpture, and laid the style characteristics of the mudman Zhang Cailang art. After each generation of descendants, they face different topics. Instead of following Zhang Mingshan’s old road, they seized the opportunities of the times, pioneered and insisted, and found the art fulcrum belonging to each generation of the “mud man Zhang”. The six generations of “Mudie Zhang” heir, there are famous masters from generation to generation. The spirit of this kind of change in inheritance and inheritance in innovation may be the long -lasting charm of the mudman Zhang Cailang art.

(The author is the deputy research librarian of the Shanghai History Museum)

Editor in charge: Chen Ruoqian

School pair: Zhang Yan