Flashlights & Torches

How did the strange and deserted disasters that lasted five years from 1928 to 1932?

This article comes from observation of the Western West of the public account.

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

Observation of the western United States: Based on the west, look at the world; pay attention to people’s livelihood, convey valuable information, and publish classic articles.

Western Jun said:

This article comes from the “History of the Republic of China” edited by Mr. Qiang Wenxiang, which is authorized by Mr. Qiang Wenxiang.

In the 17th year of the Republic of China (1928) in the Republic of China (1928) 21 years of the Republic of China (1932), a five -year strange and deserted disaster

Qiang Wenxiang

In the 17th year of the Republic of China (1928), Guanzhong, Shaanxi. The wheat was thin, and Qiuhe had no seed or no harvest, and the disaster came. At the beginning of the first month of the Republic of China (1929), the ground of Qianxian had dropped Blizzard suddenly, and the snow was more than a foot thick. The snow was not dynamic for several months, and the trees were frozen to death. After the snow disaster, there were no droughts. The loess cracks, as hard as masonry. There are no seeds and no harvest in Maiqiu. In the 1930s of the Republic of China (1930), the drought continued. Later, I finally planted Akita, but encountered locust attacks. After the locusts, there was no seedlings, and the field was bald. In the 20th year of the Republic of China (1931) to the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), the drought was slightly slower, but the disaster was even more serious due to the failure of the year. At this time, the people who struggled on the death line were raged by the “tiger epidemic” (cholera)! This is the longest long -aged disaster in northern China’s history. In

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

Five years of disasters

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

The government’s taxes are the same, the army is strong, thieves have risen, bandits are born, and county towns and townships can be suffered from a few wealthy households.

Facing the hunger of disasters, only food is the most precious. In order to save their lives, the vast majority of people in the dry land began to sell fields and houses, causing large cultivated land to be deserted and unattended. According to the investigation of 19 counties in the 20th year of the Republic of China (1931) of the Republic of China (1931), the abandoned fields accounted for 70%of the total arable land. Qianxian’s abandoned farming accounted for 80%. Farmers will be used to sell them for farmers. The group of animals were sold to the country, and the horses and donkeys flowed to Shanxi were the most. The cattle cultivated cattle were sold to Beishan District. Pig, sheep, chickens were slaughtered and hungry. The farm tools are also selling as much as possible, and many intact furniture sells it as firewood.

The other way to survive is to change food in the mountains. Yongshou, Bin County, Changwu, and Gansu, and Lingtai, north of Qianxian County. Local farmers have the habit of hoarding grain, and people from Qianxian use their own woven soil cloth, clothing, and home property to the mountains to change food. Go north to the south, change to some Pao Gu, soybeans, and live up. When the family had no millet overnight, the cadres began a large -scale escape. The 18th year of the Republic of China was the period of the victims of the Qianxian County.

According to the statistics of the investigation at that time, there were more than 70,000 people who had escaped from wasteland in the county, accounting for nearly half of the county’s population. Qianxian to Beishan District and Gansu Avenue, the fugitives are endless. The Blizzard of the first month of the year made the fleeing team frozen and hungry, and it was difficult. If you accidentally fall into the snow cellar, frozen and hungry and die. The victims who died next to the road could be seen everywhere. There are more than 5,000 people who are injured in Qianxian to escape from the road of escape. Some people also went to Nanshan to change food to escape. Qinling Mountain is high, steep wall cliffs, people or back clothes, or carrying the food back, climbing. Sometimes bend over the bow to pass through the rugged mountain road, and sometimes you must use your hands to move the rocks on the cliff forward. There is a small camel in Qinling Mountain in Meixian County. People who go to Nanshan to escape from Nanshan have taken this mountain road. This ditch is more than 30 miles up and down, with steep slopes from 50 ° to 70 °. It is usually extremely difficult to do. “18 years of the Republic of China”, many Ganxian victims lost their feet on this snowy road and fell into the deep groove and fell into the ravine.

Most people from Qianxian who escaped to the hometown lived a beggar life without accommodation. Some husbands who marry the local men in order to live. These men are either too old or silly and sick. They are humiliated by women who are married, and they miss their husbands and children who are separated from other husbands. They are physical and mental. There are also young people who settled in the local house. They were a little bit of time. Very few staying in the local family to make a breeding, but still miss and nostalgic for their hometown Qianxian.

The old and weak women and children staying at home are even more miserable. They (she) waiting for the food to change the food back to the help of life. When you are hungry, go to the nearby cities and lanes to find food. On the streets of the county and the four townships, begging for help everywhere, and the scolding sound of driving the hungry people. Some hungry people stuffed the steamed buns into the cow dung piles on the side of the road. The people who were chasing were dispersed, and they were taken out with their hands. Every late night, many hungry people crying under the temples and the eaves of the streets are cold, and the sound of moaning and sorrow can be heard everywhere, which is creepy. In the place where the north -south crossing of the county seat, common victims are used to soak rice soup with ingots. Beibei Street has become a place for people in Beixiang to sell leaves and vines. There are often hundreds of people fighting for leaves and vine.

Many women are forced to sell themselves for life. In the big car shop in the north street of the county, it became a place for buying and selling women. Many women are sold to the country. Two or three silver dollars or a few pounds of Qianzhou pot helmet can buy one daughter as a wife. What’s more, some women are hungry, and they bring their own shops at night to sell their lives in the streets of small streets. Hungry people who died in Qianxian. The streets and alleys inside the county are all hungry people with thin bones and faces like woodcuts. Death can be seen everywhere. Some shake and fall to the ground, and they can no longer climb and die. Someone was lying on the ground and still begging. The passersby couldn’t bear to see it. He gave him a steamed bun. I saw that he had no strength to send the import of imports, and he would die after a while. The ground floor of Qianxian is starved to death every day.

In the 18th year of the Republic of China (1929), at least 20 people starved to death every day in the county, the most serious time starved to death 40 or fifty people a day. Among the starvation people, most of them are old and weak women and children. The government began to send a seat with a corpse. Later, a reed seat was used to wrap the corpse many times. Started with one acupuncture point, and then several corpses were buried together. Some corpses failed to bury them in time, and the stinky was permeated, which was terrible. In the countryside, the four rural castles in the large Qianxian County are everywhere they escape from waste to sell children and starve to death. The grass roots of the bark were eaten, and many people ate “Guanyin soil”, which was commonly known as “plate soil”. Some people die because they eat this kind of soil.

According to statistics from the National Government of Shaanxi Province, there were more than 1,18 million people in 91 counties in the province in 17 years (1928), and more than 80 counties in the Republic of China (1929) in the Republic of China (1929). By November this year, the number of starvation to death in the province reached 2.5 million. Fleeing more than 400,000 and 5.35 million victims. The province’s population decreased to more than 8.6 million people due to the sharp disaster. Among them, Changan, Wugong, Fengxiang, Xingping, Qishan, Meixian, Qianxian and other places are the most serious. Before the 17th year of the Republic of China, Ganxian had a total of 16,9500 people. In November of the Republic of China (1929), there were 30,494 people who died of disaster, 27,893 people who went out to escape and 10032 victims.

After the five -year disaster, no statistics were left, but according to statistics from the 23rd year of the Republic of China (1934), the county’s population was 103,748. This number already contains the recovery factor of two or three years after the disaster, but it still decreases more than 60,000 compared with the nearly 170,000 people before the disaster. These statistics may not be very accurate, but it truly reflects the heavy disaster caused by this strange and deserted disaster to the people of Qianxian.

However, the disaster did not stop there. In the 1930s of the Republic of China (1930), it continued to be early, and summer food was still unacceptable. People are looking forward to the harvest of autumn, but unexpectedly encountered the invasion of locusts in the season of spitting flowers in the autumn. This is a pest that brings devastating disasters to crops. Once a group of gathering and collective relocation, it will cause a daunting locust. In Shaanxi, the locusts fly from east to west, to Qianling north, to the south of the Weihe River. Swipe. After the locusts, the crops have no spikes, and they are bald and red. The government and the people are helpless to let them harm.

The disaster continues. When the long -lasting disaster was about to end, the plague occurred. In the 21st year of the Republic of China (1932), in most parts of Guanzhong and northern Shaanxi, the cholera, which was called “Tigerla”, became popular. This is an acute intense infectious disease that invades our country from overseas. Bacteria invaded from the mouth and breed in the gastrointestinal sin, toxicity, vomiting and diarrhea, and seizing the whole body water, causing blood to concentrate, collapse and nose, calf twitching, and soon died of subtle pulse, heart failure. Chinese medical practitioners are generally attributed to plague, while ordinary people are like tigers and wolves, called “tiger” or “tiger epidemic”. This “tiger epidemic” landed from sea transportation, invading Shanghai first, and the convenience of the railway line quickly spreading to all parts of the country, causing great tragedies.

Although there are no trains in Shaanxi, the West Tong Highway has been connected, and the car frequently connects to the outside of the customs. In June of the same year, the “tiger epidemic” occurred in Tongguan County first, and then Xi’an discovered the epidemic. The “tiger epidemic” quickly affected 50 counties including Guanzhong, northern Shaanxi, and southern Shaanxi along the province’s highway and Xifeng Highway in the province. Qianxian is a must -have place for the broccoli highway. In the city, first from the northern cross to the south cross, it will soon spread to all streets and alleys in the city. The “tiger disease” is like a demon who has disappeared to devour people’s lives. People are invincible and do not know how to prevent them. Once they are dyed, it is difficult to escape. The hungry people flowing on the street are already vulnerable.

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

People were panicked and could not be overwhelmed. Some people are talking about “tiger epidemic” in the morning and died at noon. The husband and wife are the same, and the family is dead. There are also misery of the mourning people who die and cry. The streets of the streets can be heard, and the horror of death is shrouded in Qianxian County. There is a family of six people in the tin Tower in the city died one day. The married girl came and died in her mother’s house. The seven ruler was terrible in the Chen family. There is an old man who lives in the Jianlouzi west. He told people outside the door in the evening: “You see this tiger Liechi came next to the door and comes to my house.” die. There was a farmer in the southern countryside with his wife and children enter the city with his wife and children. Who would let the sin?! “The next day, the man died of” tiger epidemic “, and then his son died, and his wife escaped from the city to die. The coffin shop in the city has already been sold out, and the cabinet is also sold as a coffin. Later, it was rare to find a piece of reeds wrapped in the corpse. The “tiger epidemic” then spread to the four rural castles outside the county. Almost the villages were buried, and there were crying every day.

After the “tiger epidemic” became popular, the provincial government allocated funds to Shanghai to buy cholera vaccines. Ganxian gentleman Liu Wenbo negotiated to the provincial government and sent some vaccines to send it back to Qianxian. The Ganxian Government was instructed to set up a doctor of Divine Qimin to set up a temporary injection station in Qiangshengtang, Chai City in the county. The county government also transferred the injection personnel to the village castle injection vaccine with severe epidemics outside the city. This is the first time in the history of Qianxian County. However, due to too few vaccines, the epidemic is serious and the results are very small. The county government started to mobilize the people to mobilize the people in the inside and outside of the gate to prevent the people in the “tiger epidemic”. Later, Cao Xiangsheng, a western doctor in the city, used ten drops of water and injection of saline. Chinese medicine Song Zhijun used the scraping method to treat many patients, and Chinese medicine in various places also effectively had Chinese herbal medicine. After the autumn, the climate was getting colder, and the “tiger epidemic” gradually became the end of the crossbow, and finally calmed down.

According to data, “tiger epidemic” was popular in Shaanxi for about a hundred days, affecting 50 counties, and about 1340,000 people died. “Tiger epidemic” raised more than January in Qianxian, with 8,725 people in the county and 5,625 deaths.

The screenshot comes from the article “Liu Bingtao: The cholera epidemic and social response to Shaanxi Province in 1932”

The five -year -old disaster, which lasted for five years, made the earth’s earth and the ground full of desolation.

When a foreigner, Zhao Wanjiang saw the tragic situation of the Guanzhong in Shaanxi, and it was not a night, and he sang Shaanxi in 159 sentences with tears. The song:

Jiahe is full of Qinchuan, and the rain is gone. The dryness of the drought is as long as boiling. The rain is not overwhelming for three years, and the tears are exhausted. Mai harvest is hopeless to have autumn, Qiuhe is hopeless! Liangtian can’t be sold, there are still many places, livestock has long been empty, and human beings are livestock. Dong chopped firewood to sell the mansion, and the soldiers and soldiers were giving birth. He couldn’t bear to die, killing a strong meal. Killing the ancestor incense, it is better to kill a girl. His daughter could not bear to kill and exchanged borrowing offers next to the house. He headaches and headaches, crying all day long!

In the end, the author cried sadly with the song:

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

This time, the Kansai disaster is very sad, which is more sad than the siege. Suddenly, the central government issued a kindness, and the eight million debt came to the Qin. Why is there no so so so far, it is hungry. Who is the heaven and earth and killing and killing. Zheng Xia once went to the pictures of the people. Mourning self -sorrow and sorrow lameness in Shaanxi, getting up and crying in the middle night. Crying with tears, crying with tears and crying.

【About the Author】

Qiang Wenxiang, a native of Qianxian, retired from the deputy director of the Shaanxi Provincial Development and Reform Commission, and a member of Shaanxi as a member of the Shaanxi.

△ Author Qiang Wenxiang

陕西乾县1928年至1932年历时五年的奇荒大灾是怎么过去的?

Responsible editor Lei Xiaohe

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